By Mediavilla E., Arribas S., Roth M., Cepa J. (eds.)

Concurrently storing either spectral and spatial info, 3D spectroscopy deals a brand new solution to take on astrophysical difficulties, and opens up new traces of analysis. seeing that its inception within the eighties and early nineties, examine during this box has grown significantly. huge telescopes all over the international at the moment are built with essential box devices, and tools of the long run James Webb area Telescope can have essential box spectroscopic functions. these days, extra attempt is devoted to refining thoughts for decreasing, interpreting and analyzing the information got with 3D spectrographs. Containing lectures from the 17th wintry weather institution of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute, this publication explores new 3D spectroscopy strategies and knowledge. A extensive and balanced presentation of study during this box, it introduces astronomers to a brand new iteration of tools, widening the attraction of essential box spectroscopy and supporting it develop into a robust instrument in tackling astrophysical difficulties.

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As an alternative, the slicer method generates a stack of long-slit spectra, corresponding to a series of parallel slices in the image plane. Contrary to the fiber and lens array IFUs, the sky is thus imaged directly onto the detector, whereas in the former case the fiber end faces or micropupils are projected onto the focal plane. The detector area is therefore optimally filled with contiguous spectra and no space is lost due to gaps. The optomechanical design of slicers is less critical at long wavelengths, but more difficult in the optical or UV as far as performance in terms of image quality, edge effects and stray light is concerned.

Rays incident onto the fiber input with inclination angles larger than that given by a certain critical angle (numerical aperture, NA) will no longer undergo total internal reflection, but will rather be absorbed in the buffer. 31 shows a microscopic view of the polished front face of a bundle formed from several such fibers which were bonded together to make up a hexagonal densest package. In this picture, the bright circular areas are the fiber cores, surrounded by a dark ring (the cladding), and another material (the buffer).

The gain scales with the square root of the number of spaxels which are co-added into one superspaxel. This technique has been refined to what is called ‘adaptive binning’ (Cappellari and Copin, 2003), which is an algorithm that automatically generates co-added groups of spaxels through the use of a Voronoi tessellation. The regions are shaped by design such as to share the same level of S/N. Differential spectrophotometry As outlined already above (under the headings of Slit effects and Atmospheric refraction), 3D spectroscopy is, in principle, the ideal method to perform spectrophotometry.

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