By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang
This booklet is an entire reference grammar of Qiang, one of many minority languages of southwest China, spoken through approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in Aba Tibetan and Qiang self sufficient Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It belongs to the Qiangic department of Tibeto-Burman (one of the 2 significant branches of Sino-Tibetan). The dialect provided within the publication is the Northern Qiang sort spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County. This publication, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, is the results of a long time of labor at the language, and is as typologically entire as attainable. It comprises not just the reference grammar, but additionally an ethnological evaluate, a number of absolutely analyzed texts (mostly conventional stories), and an annotated thesaurus. The language is verb ultimate, agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), and has either head-marking and based marking morphology. The phonology of Qiang is sort of complicated, with 39 consonants at seven issues of articulation, plus advanced consonant clusters, either in preliminary and ultimate place, in addition to vowel concord, vowel size differences, and a collection of retroflexed vowels. The grammar additionally
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Extra info for A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library)
The stories include the creation story, the history of the Qiang (particular famous battles and heroes), and other cultural knowledge (see the Texts for some of the stories). As there was no written language until recently, story telling was the only way that this knowledge was passed on. Very few such shamans are left, and little story telling is done now that many villages have access to TVs and VCD players. 7. Mobility Because the Qiang villages are generally high up on the mountains, and there often is no road to the village, only a steep narrow path (this is the case, for example, in Ronghong village [see Plate 2], where the nearest road is hours away), travel has traditionally been by foot, though horses are sometimes used as pack animals where the path or road allows it.
7) a. tse Æthisﬂ + å Æoneﬂ + p˙ Æyearﬂ > ts˙p Æthis yearﬂ b. the Æthatﬂ + å Æoneﬂ + s˙ Ædayﬂ > thås Æthat dayﬂ 42 The noun phrase c. 8) a. t˚ile s˙t®huån mi 1pl Sichuan people Æwe/us Sichuan peopleﬂ b. devil demi s˙-l . . (T6:298-300) (name) DIR-look ÆThe emperor and his wife, the man-eating devil Demi, looked . . g. [upu-≈umt®i] ÆUncle Xumt®iﬂ. Noun phrases can be omitted if they are recoverable from the context. 4). 2, below for something of an exception to this statement). 1. The noun The noun in Qiang may be defined as a free form that can be followed by an (in)definite marker26 and a numeral-classifier phrase or number marking, and is generally not predicative without the use of a copula.
1) The noun phrase a. Ùuåt®å låpå ba bowl flowery big Æbig colorful bowlﬂ b. få phi® dÂ˙ clothing white long Ælong white clothingﬂ c. få phi® bå clothing white old Æold white clothingﬂ d. få dÂ˙ bå clothing long old Æold long clothingﬂ e. mianpåu phi® måt®å bread white soft Æsoft white breadﬂ f. t®hets˙ xs˙ car new Ægood new carﬂ g. xt®epi dÂ˙ nå knife long good Ænice long knifeﬂ h. s˙f po ti-wi tree thick DIR- tall Ætall thick treeﬂ i. stei xs˙ tse axe new sharp Æsharp new axeﬂ j. 1), or by a nominalized adjective in a pre-head relative clause structure.