By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics

Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, area reports Board, Board on Physics and Astronomy, arithmetic, and functions fee on actual Sciences, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, nationwide examine Council

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Inside some of the globules are embryonic stars—stars that abruptly stop growing when the globules are uncovered and they become separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they are accreting mass. Eventually, the young stars emerge as the globules themselves succumb to photoevaporation. This image was taken in April 1995 by HST's Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 and is provided courtesy of Jeff Hester, Paul Scowen, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

They create all the chemical elements more massive than carbon and much of the carbon as well. In the last decade, multiwavelength studies of supernovae and associated theory, especially of SN 1987A, have brought us closer to a quantitative understanding of how the major elements are made in supernovae. The role of neutrinos from gravitational collapse in forming nuclei via the rprocess has been clarified, although much about the process remains unknown. There has been progress in understanding how age-metallicity relationships and correlations of key elements depend on stellar kinematics and position in the galaxy, but the full role of the contribution of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae to determining the chemical enrichment of stars of all ages and in all environments is still elusive.

The ejection process carries matter, some of it newly synthesized, into the interstellar medium and leaves behind a white dwarf, the most common form of compact remnant. 2). Bipolar flow is the norm, and more complex flow patterns have been revealed by HST images, most recently those of spectacular "globules" or "fliers" of ejecta. Does bipolar or more complex flow demand a binary companion, or can a single star manifest such complexity? Mass loss continues even after envelope ejection. As with main sequence and Wolf-Rayet stars, ultraviolet spectroscopy is the key technique for About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

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