By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

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Extra resources for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 70

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Solid line: theoretical curve calculated from Eq. (21) using the experimentally determined values q = 86 pm and 7, = 280 ns. 5 K. ) using the values q = 86 pm and z, = 280 ns. The latter two values were found from independent measurements. Hence, the theoretical curve contains no adjustable parameter. Simultaneously with the dynamic healing length q w , the peak value of the voltage signal 6V(x,y) at the hotspot boundaries decreases with increasing modulation frequency. This effect is shown in Fig.

The dark junction areas represent shorted junctions. 2 K, beam voltage = 26 kV, beam current = 10-100 PA. Further details are given in the text. , 1985). components such as single tunnel junctions can be studied with high spatial resolution. In this way, LTSEM can detect single malfunctioning elements in a large complex array or network. , 1985). This array was fabricated in conjunction with the development of a Josephson voltage standard (see Niemeyer, Hinken and Kautz, 1984; Niemeyer, Hinken and Meier, 1984).

In Eq. (27) 6y is the length of the junction element perturbed by the beam, and w is the junction width measured along the x-direction. From Eq. (27) we see that the change 61:(yo) is proportional to the current distribution in the unperturbed junction biased at its critical current value. According to Eq. (22) this current distribution is determined by the phase-difference functions 4(yo). As pointed out by Chang and coworkers (Chang and Scalapino, 1984; Chang and Ho, 1984; Chang, Ho, and Scalapino, 1985), in addition to the local effect expressed in Eq.

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