By Bernier P. (ed.), Lefrant S. (ed.), Bidan G. (ed.)

This edited paintings includes 8 broad, review-type contributions via major scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited by means of the organisers of the foreign convention on technological know-how and know-how of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to check the growth of analysis some time past twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sector and assesses the clients for destiny study.

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Interestingly, the polymeranalogous aryl-aryl coupling using boronic acids tolerated a series of functional groups, such as benzoyl substituents in compounds 51, and a careful polymeranalogous Friedel-Crafts-reaction gave ladder polymers such as 52 (see scheme 8). Following the original synthesis of ladder polyphenylenes other methods of transforming single-stranded polyphenylenes into their double-stranded analogues have been described [96]. The absorption spectra of polyphenylenes sensitively reflect the increasing planarization of the w-conjugated frame.

32 18 Advances in Synthetic Metals Chart 8 Resonance structures of linear polyynes. possessing stabilizing and solubilizing substituents. Following the known oxidative coupling of monosubstituted acetylenes to yield diacetylene compounds after Glaser [64], Eglington [65], or Hay [66], the use of trialkylsilyl groups as protecting functions allows one to prepare polyynes 33 according to the Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reaction (see scheme 4) [67], from which the synthesis of defined series of oligoynes was possible in a deprotection-protection sequence.

The electronic nature of the intermediates, for example, carbenes or diradicals, has been studied intensively [71a-d]. The topochemical polymerization of diacetylene derivatives has also been investigated in restricted geometries, namely in Langmuir-Blodgett layers [72] and in chemisorbed monolayers [73]. Thus, 5-alkoxyisophthalic acids have been shown by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to form highly ordered monolayers by physisorption from solution onto graphite substrates. The self-assembly of isophthalic acid derivates containing a diacetylene moiety gave regular, lamellar-type "2D-crystals" with interdigitating alkyl chains in which neighboring diacetylenes fulfill the above requirements for polydiacetylene formation.

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