By Keith Griffin

The query of other ideas for monetary improvement is the topic of significant controversy and severe debate among practitioners and lecturers excited by monetary and social growth within the 3rd global. The middle of this publication is an research of the six most generally followed innovations of improvement specifically monetarism, the open financial system, industrialisation, the fairway revolution or agriculture-led improvement, redistributive thoughts of improvement and socialist strategies.

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If one insists on adopting a global perspective one could almost ignore Latin America and Africa, the former because the incidence of poverty (by Indian standards) is relatively low and the latter because the number of poor people (compared to Asia) is relatively small. This raises the question of whether, ultimately, it is appropriate to adopt an Indian centred view of the Third World, to use a universal standard in assessing deprivation, to take an absolutist view of poverty. Amartya Sen has argued persuasively "that ultimately poverty must be seen to be primarily an absolute notion"23 and one hesitates to dissent from this judgement.

C) 1946-85. Source: South, August 1986, pp. 44-5. 19 1 500 000 1 157 000 28 000 836 000 14 000 9000 43 000 7000 The new nations of the Third World are struggling to establish their legitimacy, to persuade or compel their people to accept common rules for the peaceful resolution of political conflicts. Legitimacy, however, presupposes a minimum of political liberty and social justice. Where these are absent, legitimacy, the consent of the governed, often is withheld and the people, or at least some of them, may resort to direct violence.

Griffin, Alternative Strategies for Economic Development 1 © Keith Griffin 1999 who adhere to the first view, in contrast, regard development in the Third World and specifically a rise in living standards as dependent upon growth in Europe and the trading opportunities created by growth. Thus according to this view, self-reliant, autonomous development was impossible in the Third World; the most a country could do would be to attach itself to the engine of growth represented by world trade. Lloyd Reynolds has recently surveyed the vast qualitative and quantitative literature on world economic growth and hisfindingsprovide a useful starting point for analysis3.

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