By Hazel Carter

This can be the fourth in a sequence of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned relatively in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. This quantity presents a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters conceal humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.

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Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar

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The complete pattern set is shown for úe present/Future Indicativeonly. Formsare hyphenatedto show the various elementsin their make-up: tuJa-sal-a 'we choose,are choosing' consistsof úe Sp -ta-, tense marker -la-, verb root -sal- andfinal vowel -a- which is a secondpart of thetensemarker. progressive,meaning 'be doing'.

DemonstÍâtive ' Grammatically(í)kúlí is tha subjective Relativeverb form of -/i 'be', meaningliteÌalry ,where is'. ). The allomorph of the prefix will dependon úe first sound of úe adjectivalstem;it may not be identicalwith the prefix Õf the noun it qualifies. Thus myu-rmdá mí-nji 'many fields' and sumób-botu 'a good spear'(where sumohaszeroprefix). Thereare,however,two exceptionsto t}regeneralpattemof identityofAP and NP. i) Class1Ohasz(y)i- insteadofa nasal: mpóngoz(y)íbotu 'fine goats' ii) Class5 has/È in NorthernTonga,while in SouthemTongathe adjectival prefix is identicalwith the nounprefix: 'a goodspear'is sumólíbotu in Íhe north, sumóbbotuin the south.

The tone-pattemdependson a numberof factors:the tonalclassof the root, of the subjectprefix, of the objectconcordif any, and wheúer it is a ,strong,or 'weak' variant. The complete pattern set is shown for úe present/Future Indicativeonly. Formsare hyphenatedto show the various elementsin their make-up: tuJa-sal-a 'we choose,are choosing' consistsof úe Sp -ta-, tense marker -la-, verb root -sal- andfinal vowel -a- which is a secondpart of thetensemarker. progressive,meaning 'be doing'.

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