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E. , calculate: (a) the gain ofthe amplifier. (b) the stage gain with an identical stage added. e. in high band, the reactance of the input capacitance of the next stage , Cs, begins to fall. ib to affect the performance of the circuit. Any reduction in the current in R p will reduce the voltage developed across it, thereby reducing stage gain. 13 . 14. 14 Simplifiedequivalent circuit 35 2. Cascaded Amplifiers Deriving the expression for high band gain (AH) V2 AH = V1 V1 = ib hie1 V2 = - hIe ib Zp AH = -hIe ib Zp ib hie1 ibs cancel out so ...

Cascaded Amplifiers 31 Note: The vertical axis (gain) is always shown in dB, and the horizontal axis (frequency) is always the logarithm of frequency 'log f'. This method ofaxis labelling is adopted because ofthe human ear's response to changes in both amplitude and frequency. It is well-established that the ear's responses to such changes are not linear but logarithmic. In practical terms, for example, the potentiometer used to control sound 'volume' on an audio amplifier will have a logarithmic resistance characteristic.

This is the periodic time (T). ) This is the frequency of the waveform (~ ). ] Calculate duty cycle. r. f. 2. f. 2 Draw a J kifz pulsed waveform which has a 25% duty cycle. 3 Solution waveform It is important to appreciate that there is no such thing as the perfect rectangular wave as this would entail a voltage or current changing from one level to another in zero time. However, it is obvious that any change of 51 3. Rectangular Waves level must take a fmite time. 4, the 'corners' are rounded.

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