By Prof. Dr. Max Aebi FRCS(C), John S. Thalgott M.D., John K. Webb FRCS (auth.)

This ebook has develop into important on account of the quick enlargement of the surgeries and implants on hand for spinal surgical procedure in the "AO Group". we've not tried to write down an in-depth publication on spinal surgical procedure, yet one that might help the medical professional within the use of AO thoughts and implants. We con­ sider the sensible classes held around the world crucial for the educating of sound strategies in order that technical issues and bad effects could be stay away from­ ed for either the healthcare professional and, specifically the sufferer. This ebook is a realistic handbook and an overview of what's taught within the classes. it really is meant to assist the younger spinal medical professional to appreciate the proper use of AO implants. The indi- tions given will relief the proper use of every method. . It has to be strongly emphasised that surgical procedure of the backbone is technically de­ manding. The suggestions defined during this e-book should still basically be undertaken by means of surgeons who're expert and skilled in spinal surgical procedure. yes thoughts, specifically pedicle screw fIxation and cages, haven't but been totally authorized by means of the FDA within the usa. even if, in the course of the remainder of the realm, using pedicle screws has develop into a customary method for the backbone doctor, because it has been proven to enhance fIxation thoughts and make allowance segmental correction of the backbone. using cages has develop into an increasing number of renowned, in particular as a device of minimally invasive spinal surgery.

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In Bl and B2 injuries, the anterior lesion may be through the disk or a type A fracture of the vertebral body. Thus, type A fractures reoccur in these two groups, and the adjunction of their description is necessary for a complete definition of the injury. More severe Bl and B2lesions may involve the erector spinae muscles or both these muscles and their fascia. Thus, the posterior disruption may extend into the subcutaneous tissue. Translational dislocation in the sagittal direction may be present, and if not seen on radiographs, the potential for sagittal translocation should nonetheless be suspected.

3). Within this classification the injuries are hierarchically ranked according to progressive severity. Thus, severity progresses from type A to type C, and similarly within each type, group, and further subdivision. Ranking of the injuries was primarily determined by the degree of instability. Prognostic aspects were taken into consideration as far as possible. 2 Type B injuries: groups, subgroups, and specifications Type B. 2 With type A fracture of the vertebral body 1 Flexion-subluxation + type A fracture 2 Antirior dislocation + type A fracture 3 Flexion-subluxation/anterior dislocation with fracture of the articular processes + type A fracture text refers to the two-column concept as described by Whitesides [46].

The intactness of the posterior ligament complex and the anterior longitudinal ligament [48] accounts for the unimpaired tensile strength of the spine, which is in turn important for treatment modalities. Application of longitudinal traction, e. , by Harrington distraction rods or an internal fixator, does not result in overdistraction. The spine is stable in extension as the strong anterior longitudinal ligament is preserved [48], and the posterior vertebral elements maintain their stabilizing function despite a possible split of the lamina.

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