By Stephen C. McCluskey

Historians have lengthy famous that the rebirth of technological know-how in twelfth-century Europe flowed from a look for historical medical texts. yet this seek presupposes wisdom and curiosity; we in simple terms search what we all know to be necessary. The emergence of scholarly curiosity after centuries of obvious stagnation turns out paradoxical. This e-book resolves that seeming contradiction via describing 4 lively traditions of early medieval astronomy: one divided the yr by way of staring at the solar; one other computed the date of Easter complete Moon; the 3rd decided the time for monastic prayers via staring at the process the celebs; and the classical culture of geometrical astronomy supplied a framework for the cosmos. almost all these astronomies have been functional; they sustained the groups during which they flourished and mirrored and strengthened the values of these groups. those astronomical traditions stimulated the quest for historical studying that ended in the clinical Renaissance of the 12th century.

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Il ;". =,? l day market week, and the prace of ro. fo.. th. ui""i. D iu ! Eùôüü* iE- É#,À&,5 irsl iiir M Lhà6 rtrN CONTINÙTTY AND C}IANGE ,' xqvl Itrr,r M B IN IT NT VI D EqvI ÿtr VIII VrJ rr À4 D f,l§, ( S'tJH; AIVI D XI D, X!! ,o & BIV a o o o o o a a o ô a a o a i a a { a Figure ro. Calendar from a Christian shrine. Terrâ-cottâ copy of a stecklealenderfrom the oratory of St. Felicity, Rome, fourth century. The calendar 'contâins sockets in which markers could be inserted to indicate the day of the month (numbered one through thirry), the place of the Sun in the zodiac, and the day of the week by the corresponding planetary deiry.

Chadwick, The Druids, pp. 58-{8. 7o--r, PG 8, col. zz; clement of Alexandria, Cy-il of Alexmdria, ContraJulianum, 4, pG g. R, 7, . li. r1, Pliny, Hist. 5; N. s, pp. 2. r 8-r9. E. R. c, Reason, and Expeiente (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. , r97g). l{oss, Pagan Celtit Britain, pp. z59rz6r. Cited in Robert E. McNa1ly, "The Three Holy Kings in Early Irish'Writing," in P. Granfield and J. Â. , Kyriakon: Festschrift Johannes Quasten, vol. z, pp. 667490 (Münster i. : Aschendorff, r97o), here pp. 685, 688.

A few written sources do provide fleeting glimpses of the practirioners of these tri(litional astronomies. ro, transl. S. -M. Picard, p. 27. 5r âmong the ideas and pracices of their barbarian (]ernrenic and celtie neighbon, Later writings, especially those Iiorn lreland, provide a native, if christian, view of celtic practices, but do so at a time when these traditions were already in decline. Frequently appearing in the written sources describing the celtic societies of f€precêntatives hter accounts, These descriptions associate the practice of two crafts with the druids: Pliny noted the importance of the practice of medicine, andJulius Caesar and Pomponius Mela, both drawing on the lost work of the Stoic philosopher and historian Posidonius (ca.

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