By Dan P. Manka

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Extra resources for Automated Stream Analysis for Process Control. Volume 2

Example text

Also, the permeation and diffusion methods could not be used, although a similar approach, the use of a dialysis membrane (Tuwiner, 1962), might be used to transfer small quantities of one liquid component into another liquid stream. Only a few methods for dynamic liquid mixing will be discussed below. 46 1. G. L. BAKER METERING WITH PUMPS The use of pumps, such as peristaltic or piston, is probably the most common method for blending two or more liquid flows. Peristaltic pumps, in particular, are used for the precise metering of several liquids at low flow rates into a common mixture.

CALIBRATION METHODS FOR PROCESS ANALYZERS 45 where CQ is the mole percentage of compound A in the gas sample; CA the parts per million by weight of compound A in the liquid sample; (MW)A the molecular weight of compound A; D the liquid sample density in grams per milliliter; VL the liquid-sample volume in microliters; VQ the gas-sample volume in microliters; P the absolute gas pressure in the sample valve (ordinarily barometric pressure) in torr; and T the gas-sample-valve temperature in Kelvins.

A change in the dew point of the air from 10 to 11°C would change the apparent weight by approximately 20 mg. The use of a double-arm balance would theoretically eliminate these errors if a cylinder of precisely the same volume were used on the second arm of the balance. However, unless the conditions were exactly the same for both cylinders, errors would still result. In practice, it is very difficult to maintain a uniform temperature distribution within a space large enough to contain even one cylinder.

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