By F. B. Singleton, D. F. Bratchell and E. F. Candlin (Auth.)

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Rumania fought on the Allied side during the war, and although knocked out in the fighting in 1916, she re-entered in 1918 on the eve of the collapse of the Central Powers. She was therefore able to press her claims against her neighbours, three of whom — Russia, Bulgaria, and Hungary — were in no position to appeal for help to the Allies. Only the newly created states on her borders — Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Poland — were likely to receive any consideration in the event of a conflict between their interests and those of Rumania.

Like Karageorge he did not live to see the independence of his country, for he was brutally murdered on the orders of the Greek leader Constantine Ypsilanti. The Principalities eventually achieved autonomy by the Treaty of Paris which ended the Crimean War in 1856. A futile attempt was made under this Treaty to separate the two provinces, but two years later Moldavia and Wallachia became united, and shortly afterwards the Rumanians invited the German Prince Karl (Rumanian Carol) of Hohenzollern to be their ruler.

He rebuilt the city, founding there the famous Charles University in 1348. At about the same time the Polish King Casimir founded the law school at Cracow, which eventually became the first university of Poland. Although there was fierce rivalry between the various Christian rulers of Central Europe during the Middle Ages, the idea of Christendom could still inspire them to co-operate in the face of a common danger. This was demonstrated in 1364 when Cracow became the venue for a curious international conference.

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