By Sharon Walker
This self-teaching consultant explains the fundamental options and basics in the entire significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra advanced themes equivalent to DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental systems, infectious ailments, immunology, the Human Genome venture, new drug discoveries, and genetic issues
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Additional resources for Biotechnology demystified
These are trapped inside the familiar double helix of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). The energy for the cell comes from the oxidation of carbon. Energy is stored in the form of highenergy phosphate bonds coupled to a nucleic acid in an adenosine tri-phosphate molecule (ATP). Quiz 1. Biomolecules: (a) behave differently than molecules outside of a living system. (b) are formed from a backbone of hydrogen. (c) are formed primarily from ionic bonds. (d) are of four basic types. (e) a and d are correct.
Biotechnology Demystiﬁed 44 45 Single Strand mRNA Phosphate bond U Pentose Sugar G U A U U RNA Polymerase Double Strand DNA T A C A A A T T T C G A G C T Hydrogen Bond G Pentose Sugar A T Phosphate Bond Figure 3-2 Transcription of DNA This molecule travels down the DNA and builds up another molecule, RNA. RNA is very similar to DNA except it exists in much smaller molecules, the sugar is different (ribose instead of deoxyribose), and has uracil, another nucleic acid, in place of thymine. RNA usually exists as a single strand.
After the chromosomes have been distributed to different areas of the parent cell, the cell splits in two, a process called cytokinesis. The fourth and ﬁnal stage of mitosis is called telophase. Cells produced in this way are somatic cells and include every type of cell in your body, except the cells that become sperm and egg. The cells that will contribute to the formation of a new organism, known as germ cells, are created by a process called meiosis, discussed next. Again, mitosis usually goes without a hitch.