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Kamo, K. , and Becwar, M. R. (1986). Genotype specificity of somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in maize. Biotechnology, (in press). Kamo, Κ. , and Hodges, Τ. K. (1986). Establishment and characterization of long-term, embryogenic maize callus and cell suspension cultures. Plant Sei. , (in press). Kamo, Κ. , Becwar, M. , and Hodges, Τ. K. (1985). Regeneration of Zea mays from embryogenic callus. Bot. G a z . (in pre ss ). Keyes, G. J . , and Bingham, E. T. (1979). Heterosis and ploidy effects on the growth of alfalfa callus.

59. K. (1970). Nature 227, 680. , Dale R . M . K . M. (1981). Planta 1 5 3 , 405. N. (1961). J. Biol. Chem. 2 3 6 , 1372. , Enns, R . K . G. (1981). Plant Physiol. 6_7, 603. Stuart, D . A . G. (1984a). Plant Sei. Lett. 34, 165. Stuart, D . A . G. (1984b). Plant Sei. Lett. 34, 175. Stuart, D . A . , Nelsen, J . W. (1985). In "Tissue Culture in Forestry and Agriculture" (Henke ejt a_l. , p. 59. Walker, K . A . J. (1981). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 1_, 109. Walker, K . A . , Wendeln, M . L . G.

The behavior of these anthers in culture is not known. At the other extreme are species such as members of the genera Brassica and Datura in which no S pollen have been observed, and in which microspore-derived plants have been produced. In the majority of species, including Z. m a y s , a frequency of 1-5% S pollen is commonly found. There is still no satisfactory explanation for the occurrence of the 2 pollen types. It is suggested in the example of Tripo­ gandra referred to above that the vascular connections to the 2 types of anthers are different and that those anthers containing S pollen have a restricted and limiting nutrient supply which means the pollen is effectively starved of substances necessary to ensure normal development.

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