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The latter explains frequent use of “metalinguistic” analyses. For instance, Bolzano argues that (true or false) existential propositions such as ‘There are triangles’ should be interpreted as ‘The idea of a triangle has objectuality’; where the subject-idea ‘The idea of a triangle’ refers to an idea and where ‘objectuality’ refers to a second order predicate-idea, a property of a concept, namely the property of having a non-empty extension (1837, §172, 215). Bolzano sees a great deal of significant, articulate structure within propositions, and he is committed to an elaborate theory of such structure.

That hold not for thought [. ] but for truths in general” (1837, §12, 47), that is, for Sätze an sich. On the other hand, many of the conceptions that were popular at the time took for granted that considerations of the “matter” of particular judgements – those aspects that are not strictly linked to their logical structure – should be seen as irrelevant A Substitutional Theory 45 to logic. As Bolzano conceived of it, logic is not concerned exclusively with the definition of properties propositions and inferences have by virtue of their form, but with a general study of the properties propositions and ideas have, which includes also the determination of such notions as truth, meaning, apriority and necessity, for instance.

Whoever subscribes to (1) conceives of this relation in terms of “resemblance”. (1) expresses a naïve form of representationalism: a concept is in some substantial way determined by the features of the object it represents, and it represents things by virtue of “resembling” them. (1) supposes that the structure of (components in) concepts is in some systematic manner analogous to the structure of (properties in) objects. The kind of analogy adherents to (1) had in mind was typically based on the idea that concepts are “pictures” of the objects they represent; the idea that they are “pictures” of the objects they represent was meant to explain how they represent the latter, namely by virtue of their components’ corresponding to some features of the objects to which they refer.

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