By Philip Wilkinson

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There is also a stone parapet at the eaves of the roof. Stone chimney Living room Embrasures to fire on enemy Dungeon-like storeroom Defensive machicolations ALL SHAPES AND SIZES Medieval masons experimented with towers of many different shapes. Square towers were easy to build but gave castle defenders limited viewpoints. Round towers were better in this respect, but were harder to build. A good compromise was the octagonal tower, seen here at the Château de Chamerolles, France. Wall built of well-finished stone blocks (ashlar) Large windows probably added later – castles usually had small ones near the ground TOWER BUILDERS This medieval manuscript shows workers building town walls around Marseilles, France.

Roman arches were semicircular; these were popular until Gothic masons invented the pointed arch in the Middle Ages. Today, strong lintels can be made with materials such as steel and concrete, so arches are less common than they once were. Spiral scroll or volute Abacus, a narrow band of stone GREEK IONIC CAPITALS At the top of a column there is usually a capital, which connects it to the arch or lintel above. Greek Ionic capitals always have pairs of spiral scrolls, known as volutes. Between the volutes there is an area called the echinus, which is carved with “eggand-dart” molding.

They are typical of the Orthodox churches of Russia and eastern Europe. These domes are raised on a tall, cylindrical structure called a drum, which gives them extra height and makes for a stunning skyline. Lead provides flexible and long-lasting covering for spire Broach support at base of spire POINTING TO HEAVEN The spires of the Gothic churches of the Middle Ages point to the sky, enticing the faithful to look up to the heavens. The spires of St. Nicholas’s Church in Lemgo, Germany, built in the 1560s and 1660s, continue this tradition.

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